Who is taken into astronauts
Even during the formation of the concept of manned flights, the father of the Soviet space program, SP Korolev, reasonably believed that the first cosmonauts should be military pilots. It is not surprising, therefore, that the first set of candidates for cosmonauts consisted of 20 fighter pilots.
However, soon it was clear to SP Korolev that in space, representatives of other professions – engineers, doctors, researchers, were needed. So in 1965, on his initiative, a detachment of civilian cosmonauts was formed at the CPC, consisting primarily of engineers from the Royal OKB-1, participating in the creation of space technology.
Two years later, the leadership of the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBPMP) announced its intention to create its own detachment. In the 80 years, its number reached 10 people, of which only two were in space.
Since then, the concept of selecting candidates for cosmonauts has practically not changed. Test cosmonauts, (they are commanders of the crews) – in the past pilots of the Air Force. Astronauts-engineers – as a rule, graduates of prestigious technical universities (MAI, MVTU, the Department of Space Studies of Moscow State University, etc.), who participated in the creation of space technology samples. Among the crew members can be astronaut-researchers, usually qualified doctors and biologists.
How to fly into space
So, a person once makes an important decision for himself: I want to become an astronaut. Where to begin? To begin with it is necessary to familiarize with the general information. The main space employer in Russia is the Federal Space Agency, which has four selection centers in Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Vladivostok and Khabarovsk. The next set is reported on the website of the CPC. The last 17th set ended in July this year.
Astronauts, still, “goods” piece. To the candidates, as before, very strict requirements are made. The selection takes place in several stages. In the beginning the commission gets acquainted with a personal matter. Obligatory conditions: the presence of Russian citizenship, age to 35 years, higher engineering education or flight specialty, absence of offenses.
Then – the medical board. Compared with the first set of requirements less stringent, which is due to the changed conditions of stay aboard the spacecraft: they have become much more comfortable and safe. Nevertheless, certain standards must be met. The main one is impeccable health. The final stage is tests for professional fitness.
Candidates who successfully passed all the stages of selection are enlisted in the cosmonaut detachment. Its full name is FGBU NII TsPK named after Yu.A. Gagarin, who is in the famous near Moscow Star City.
What you need to fly into space
The general course lasts from 3 to 5 years, after which preparation for a particular expedition to the ISS begins. A very important feature: the new crew is formed in the process of preparation, and not in the order of the queue, that is, the most prepared fly. Among the enrolled in the detachment there are those who flew several times, but there are those who are waiting for their “star” hour for many years.
How to become an astronaut to a Russian woman
Men’s space “monopoly” did not last long: in June 1963 the first woman, Valentina Tereshkova, flew into space. However, this did not change the established practice, and mostly men continue to fly into space, which is a simple explanation: unearthly loads are given to them more easily.
Otherwise, the road to space for Russians, regardless of gender, is approximately the same. So, Valentina Tereshkova came to the cosmonaut detachment from the flying club and after the flight she graduated from the Air Force Academy. N.E. Zhukovsky. Tatyana Savitskaya is a graduate of the MAI and a test pilot in the past. The space record holder Elena Kondakova is a graduate of the Moscow Higher Technical University, after which she worked in RSC Energia. The youngest – test cosmonaut Elena Serova also graduated from the MAI, and before joining the cosmonaut detachment she worked for several years at the PMU.
What about NASA?
The profession of an astronaut in the US is very prestigious. During the last set in NASA was filed more than 18 thousand applications. As a result, only 12 persons passed the most severe screening screen. By the way, Roskosmos received only 400 applications.
There are no fundamental differences in the requirements for candidates for astronauts (and cosmonauts): they should also have an excellent education – preferably a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, biology, engineering disciplines from one of the prestigious American universities. Need experience of work (at least three years) in the specialty and excellent health.