Contents of the article
Vardrayving, he is the interception of Wi-Fi traffic, always begins with the choice of equipment. This is what we will do: in a convenient format of questions and answers, we will analyze what devices exist in nature, for which tasks they are best suited and what to take to begin with.
Why is vladryving a great thing?
The iPass website has interesting statistics on the growth of the number of Wi-Fi hotspots around the world. Just look at it: from 2013, the increase is almost 900%. Approximately the same picture can be seen on the WiGLE website, which collects information about public access points.
That is, Wi-Fi is now everywhere and everywhere; in more or less large cities, the 2.4 GHz band is full. Moscow, by the way, recently took second place in the world for the spread of Wi-Fi in public places, which makes me happy as an inhabitant of the capital and amateur of Wi-Fi hacking. About how the SSID of MosMetro_Free and MT_FREE networks play, I'll tell you somehow.
Meanwhile, the Wi-Fi Alliance promises that everything is just beginning. By 2020, we will see 38.5 billion connected devices; gradually new standards for low power consumption and IoT will come into life; perhaps, something will result in cross-pollination with LTE in the framework of LTE-U and so on and so forth.
In general, you already understood: a specialist who cuts all this good in safety, without a piece of bread will not remain. 🙂
According to clause 4.1.1 of PCI DSS v. 2, you need to regularly audit the security of Wi-Fi access points. Correctly it can be made only by the same tools that are used in real attacks. The article is informational in nature. It is addressed to IS specialists and those who are going to become them.
What are the standards of Wi-Fi?
It may surprise you, but Wi-Fi can work not only in the 2.4 and 5 GHz frequency bands. The 802.11 digits hide a whole set of standards for communicating devices in a wireless local area network. Bearing frequencies are very different. Here is their list:
- 900 MHz – 802.11ah;
- 2.4GHz – 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ax;
- 3.6 GHz – 802.11y;
- 4.9 GHz – 802.11j;
- 5 GHz – 802.11a, 802.11n, 802.11ac, 802.11ax;
- 5.9 GHz – 802.11p;
- 45 GHz – 802.11aj;
- 60 GHz – 802.11aj, 802.11ay.
If you want to tighten up the matchmaking, be sure to browse through the page about IEEE 802.11 in Wikipedia, and if that seems not enough, then go to the sources and begin to shake the standards themselves.
Work with radio frequencies is legislatively regulated, right?
Without a license, you can not work at any frequency. Such unlicensed bands are called ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical). The frequency grid and the power of the transmitters for such ranges are regulated by the relevant authorities. Without a license, you can only work with local restrictions.
In Russia these issues are handled by Roskomnadzor, now well known to everyone. But if on the Internet Roskomnadzor is famous for blocking, in the field of wireless networks, on the contrary, it continues to resolve and resolve.
In 2014 in Russia the restriction on the use of radio frequency bands 2400-2483.5 MHz for short-range devices was lifted. In 2015, 802.11ac was legalized and for the company – 802.11ad.
What frequencies can I work without restrictions?
Without the permission of Roskomnadzor, it is possible to use the following radio frequency bands, the non-fugitive operation of the RES in which is not provided: 2400-2483.5 MHz for RES with a maximum transmitter power of 0.1 W (channels 1-13), 5150-5350 MHz for RES with the maximum transmitter power is 0.2 W and only for indoor use – channels 36-64, UNII-1 and UNII-2 bands.
The range of 5650-5825 MHz (channels 132-161) is still open for aircraft in flight at a height of not less than 3000 m. As you understand, various kinds of equipment can live in unauthorized parts of the spectrum. For example, radar or relay. So it remains to wait for improvements.
In addition, for the ranges 5150-5350 MHz and 5650-5850 MHz, the maximum permissible power (up to 10 mW) per 1 MHz was doubled.
The use of Wi-Fi adapters with a transmitter power exceeding 100 mW requires registration in accordance with clause 2 of Article 22 of the Federal Law of 07.07.2003 No. 126-FZ "On Communications" and Government Resolution No. 539 of October 12, 2004 (with amendment).
Which devices are suitable for warrving?
The main choice that you have to make is not even a specific device model, but its type. There are USB adapters (they are also "dongles" and "whistles", and sometimes they are called "cards" in the jargon), Wi-Fi routers, and also microcontrollers with support for Wi-Fi. You can use a phone or tablet, but here you can achieve much better results in conjunction with an external adapter.
Why do many people use a USB-adapter ("whistle")?
It's convenient, familiar and usually cheaper than a router. There is a considerable choice of well-proven adapters with a monitoring mode (you will need it for attacks). In general, any beginner, I would advise taking a "whistle" – he in any case, more than once will come in handy.
Can I break Wi-Fi with an adapter built into my laptop?
I have to upset you: chips that are put in laptops can not normally be switched to monitoring mode, so there's nothing to talk about. And even if it were possible, the range of reception of the built-in antenna in the laptop is usually small, and there is nowhere to connect the external antenna.
How to start choosing an adapter?
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